Gut Health / Immune Balance

Digestive Health / Immune Balance Immunoglobulin (IgY)

Immunoglobulin (IgY)

IgY is an immunoglobulin found in high concentration in the egg yolk of hens which have been vaccinated against microorganisms known to cause gastrointestinal disease. IgY antibodies have the ability to physically associate and neutralize specific pathogens.

Aspergillus

Aspergillus

Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are two species known to produce Aflatoxin.

Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by many species of fungi. Mycotoxins can contaminate feedstuffs and upon ingestion, may severely compromise animal health.

Colostrum

Colostrum

Colostrum is the first milk produced by lactating cows. Colostrum contains a potent array of immune factors which work synergistically with one another to reduce inflammation and to provide broad spectrum defense against pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Colostrum also contains several growth factors which act to repair damage to the gut lining and restore gut integrity. Colostrum has even been shown to increase the surface area of the intestinal lining, thereby improving nutrient absorption.

 

Probiotic

Probiotic

Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can colonize the intestinal tract. Probiotics compete with the “bad” bacterial inhabitants for space along the intestinal wall.

Clostridium

Clostridium

Clostridium are anaerobic rod-shaped, gram positive bacteria of a large genus which includes many pathogenic species. Clostridium perfringens has been implicated in the development of Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome (HBS).

PRP’s

PRP’s

Proline – Rich Polypeptides (PRPs)
PRPs are a component in colostrum which function as signaling devices, carrying information from cell to cell. PRPs have the ability to both stimulate an underactive immune system and to turn down an overactive immune system.

Coronavirus

Coronavirus

Coronavirus is a common virus which primarily infects the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds.

Rotavirus

Rotavirus

Rotavirus is a virus that infects the bowels, causing gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Rotavirus infects the young of many animal species, particularly pigs and calves.

FBP

FBP

Fungal Bioactive Polysaccharides

Villi

Villi

Villi (singular: villus)
are small, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall. Villi increase the internal surface area of the intestinal wall allowing for greater absorption.

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite that can cause diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis, commonly known as “Crypto.”

 

E.coli

E.coli

Escherichia coli
(E.coli) is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe bacterium and is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. However, some pathogenic strains such as K99 and O157:H7 can cause severe intestinal infection.

Antigens

Antigens

An antigen is a foreign substance that when introduced to the body induces an immune response, especially the production of antibodies.

Mucus

Mucus

Mucus is the slippery secretion produced by mucus cells (i.e. goblet cells) among the epithelial lining of the intestine. Mucus serves to protect and lubricate the bowel.

Mucus

Mucus

Mucus is the slippery secretion produced by mucus cells (i.e. goblet cells) among the epithelial lining of the intestine. Mucus serves to protect and lubricate the bowel.

Salmonella

Salmonella

Salmonella are rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria that can adhere to the intestinal tract resulting in severe diarrhea and potentially life-threatening dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.

Villus

Villus

A single villi.

Lacteal

Lacteal

A lacteal is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.

Mature DC cell

Mature DC cell

A mature DC cell refers to a dendritic cell that has come into contact with presentable antigen and has become fully active.

M cells

M cells

M cells (microfold cells) are specialized cells found in the epithelium covering a Peyer’s patch. The function of an M cell is to sample the antigen directly from the lumen and deliver it to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and lymphocytes.

IgM

IgM

IgM is an immunoglobulin found in colostrum which serves as a first line of defense, attacking bacteria and rendering them inactive.

IgA

IgA

IgA is an immunoglobulin found in colostrum which serves as a first line of defense, protects mucosal surfaces and prevents the attachment of pathogens to the them.

Epithelial cells

Epithelial cells

Epithelial cells are cells arranged in one or more layers to form epithelial tissues. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body.

Eosinophil

Eosinophil

Eosinophils are white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multi-cellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells they also control the mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma.

Capillaries

Capillaries

Capillaries are the tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins. Capillaries form a network throughout the body for the exchange of oxygen, metabolic waste products, and carbon dioxide between blood and tissue cells.

M cells

M cells

M cells (microfold cells) are specialized cells found in the epithelium covering a Peyer’s patch. The function of an M cell is to sample the antigen directly from the lumen and deliver it to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and lymphocytes.

Peyer's Patch

Peyer's Patch

Peyer’s patches are regions of lymphoid tissue found in the wall of the small intestine. Peyer’s patches function as immune sensors of the intestine and facilitate the generation of the immune response within the mucosa.

Goblet cell

Goblet cell

Goblet cells are specialized cells which reside throughout the length of the small and large intestine and are responsible for the production of protective mucus.

Beta Glucan

Beta Glucan

Beta glucans are a class of polysaccharides found widespread in nature and may be derived from a variety of sources. Many beta glucans derived from fungi have the ability to behave as immunomodulators. In this illustration beta glucan is activating a macrophage, triggering a cascade of immune events to occur.

Macrophage

Macrophage

Macrophages are cells of the immune system responsible for finding, identifying and consuming foreign invaders in the body. Macrophages have the ability to trigger other components of the immune system such as Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, B cells, T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells.

Migrating blood cells

Migrating blood cells

The migrating blood cells shown here are white blood cells moving from a blood vessel into surrounding tissue.

Antigen

Antigen

An antigen is a foreign substance that when introduced to the body induces an immune response, especially the production of antibodies.

Macrophage

Macrophage

Macrophages are cells of the immune system responsible for finding, identifying and consuming foreign invaders in the body. Macrophages have the ability to trigger other components of the immune system such as Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, B cells, T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells.

B cells

B cells

B cells or B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that function in the humoral immunity. B cells multiply and mature into antibody producing plasma cells.

Eosinophil

Eosinophil

Eosinophil are white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multi-cellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells they also control the mechanisms associated with allergies and asthma.

T cell

T cell

A T cell or T lymphocyte is a type of lymphocyte (a sub-type of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. There are several subsets of T cells, each having a distinct function i.e. Cytotoxic T cells target virus infected cells and tumor cells.

Lymph vessel

Lymph vessel

Lymph vessels are vascular tubes that transport lymph throughout the body.

T cell

T cell

A T cell or T lymphocyte is a type of lymphocyte (a sub-type of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. There are several subsets of T cells, each having a distinct function i.e. Cytotoxic T cells target virus infected cells and tumor cells.

Dendritic Cell

Dendritic Cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. DCs act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immune systems, processing antigen material and presenting it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system.

Dectin-1

Dectin-1

Dectin-1 is a receptor for -glucans expressed on phagocytic leukocytes.

Activated Macrophage

Activated Macrophage

An activated macrophage is one that has been ‘turned on’ and is in an active metabolic state.

Helper T cell

Helper T cell

Helper T cells are a subset of T cells that play a major role in controlling and regulating the adaptive immune response by ‘helping’ to activate other white blood cells to perform their respective functions. Helper T cells usually express the CD4 co-receptor.

Plasma cell

Plasma cell

Plasma cells are fully differentiated B cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.

Bone marrow

Bone marrow

Bone marrow is the soft spongy tissue inside the bones where blood cells are produced.

Cytokines

Cytokines

Cytokines are small proteins or glycoproteins that help the immune system to mount and coordinate an effective immune response by aiding cell to cell communication.

CD4 T cell

CD4 T cell

A CD4+ T cells are T cells expressing the CD4 co-receptor. CD4 co-receptor assists the T cell receptor in communicating with antigen presenting cells.

B-cell

B-cell

B cells or B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that function in the humoral immunity. B cells multiply and mature into antibody producing plasma cells.

Paneth cell

Paneth cell

Paneth cells are secretory cells in the epithelium of the small intestine, residing in small clusters at the base of crypts. Paneth cells provide host defense against microbes in the small intestine by secreting anti-microbial compounds.

activated B-cell

activated B-cell

An activated B cell is a B cell that has received the necessary signals and is thus ready to differentiate into plasma cells or memory B cells.

IgA

IgA

IgA is an immunoglobulin found in colostrum which serves as a first line of defense, protects mucosal surfaces and prevents the attachment of pathogens to the them.

IL-2

IL-2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a type of cytokine signaling molecule that regulates the activities of white blood cells, primarily T cells.

IgM

IgM

IgM is an immunoglobulin found in colostrum which serves as a first line of defense, attacking bacteria and rendering them inactive.

Monocyte

Monocyte

A monocyte is a large phagocytic white blood cell. Depending on conditions, monocytes differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells.

Dendritic Cell

Dendritic Cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. DCs act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immune systems, processing antigen material and presenting it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system.

Natural Killer cell

Natural Killer cell

Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a type of white blood cell able to kill infected and damaged cells without reliance upon antigen recognition.

Antibodies

Antibodies

Antibodies (immunoglobulins) are Y shaped protein molecules produced by the immune system in response to foreign antigen such as viruses and bacteria. Antibodies stick to specific antigens, marking them for destruction.

Basophil

Basophil

Basophils are white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for inflammatory reactions during the immune response. Basophils also play a role in the formation of allergies.

CD 8 T cell

CD 8 T cell

A CD8+ T cells are T cells expressing the CDB co-receptor (predominantly expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells). CD8 co-receptor aids in cytotoxic T cell antigen interaction and plays an important role in T cell signaling.

Neutrophil

Neutrophil

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell in mammals and form an essential part of the innate immune system. Neutrophils are phagocytes, capable of ingesting microorganisms and debris.

Eosinophil

Eosinophil

Eosinophils are white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multi-cellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells Eosinophils also control the mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma.

Lymphoid Follicle

Lymphoid Follicle

A lymphoid follicle is a region of lymphoid tissue that is densely packed with lymphocytes.

IL-12

IL-12

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a type of cytokine produced mainly by phagocytic cells in response to antigenic stimulation.

Cytotoxic T cell

Cytotoxic T cell

Cytotoxic T cells are a subset of T cells that have the ability to directly kill infected and damaged cells. Cytotoxic T cells usually express the CD8 co-receptor.

Memory B-cell

Memory B-cell

Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type capable of ‘remembering’ previously encountered pathogens for faster antibody production in future infections.

Memory T cell

Memory T cell

Memory T cells are T cells that have previously encountered and overcome an infection. Memory T cells are capable of ‘remembering’ the most effective strategy employed, enabling them to fight off re-occurrence of the same disease.

Plasma cell

Plasma cell

Plasma cells are fully differentiated B cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.

C1q Complement

C1q Complement

C1q is a protein complex and is the first component of the complement system, part of the innate immune system that improves the activity of phagocytes and antibodies. C1q binds antigen/antibody complexes and triggers the classical complement cascade.

MBL Complement

MBL Complement

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein capable of activating the complement system, part of the innate immune system that improves the activity of phagocytes and antibodies. MBL recognizes carbohydrate patterns on the surface of pathogenic microorganisms and binds to them, triggering the complement cascade via the lectin pathway.

infected cell killed

infected cell killed

Cell death by cytotoxic T cell activity in conjunction with complement system.

infected cell killed

infected cell killed

Cell death due to antibody marking the cell for destruction in conjunction with complement system.

Digestive Health / Immune Balance